“Medycyna Nowożytna” T. 19, 2013, fasc. 1

23.03.2015 | 12.02.2022


Maria J. Turos

Trying to explain the causes of the frequency of amputation by surgeons performing the Napoleonic era.

The text is a presentation by visual inspection uniform John Leon Kozietulskiego preserved in the Museum of the Polish Army in Warsaw. The analysis carried out on the preserved material evidence allows you to change well-established by historians opinion about the injury.


Złota Agnieszka

Disputes about medical experiments in Nazi concentration camps.

Biological mass extermination of the  population regarded as racially interior was carried out gradually. The consecutive stages of its practical implementation were anthropological examinations, mass sterilization for eugenic reasons and the euthanasia programme. Racist trends started to rise at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, which  resulted in creation of numerous racist and anti-Semitic works. The policy of negative eugenics was very diversified in the past, ranging from mass segregation in the United Stated through mass sterilization in Sweden to extermination of population in the Third Reich.  Experiments into mass sterilization were  performed during the war by Carl Clauberg and Horst Schumann, mainly in Auschwitz and Ravensbrück, to a limited extent in other camps. The longest eugenic programme was implemented in Sweden, which became the first country where racial hygiene acquired the status of official science and institutional base supported by the state. Compulsory sterilization procedures were performed in that country until the 1970s. The Scandinavian countries took up the most advanced pursuits of legalization of sterilization on the European continent. The final stage of implementation of the extermination programme  was euthanasia, the aim of which was to kill people unworthy of living.  The Euthanasia Action was code – named T – 4, later, when it was transferred to concentration camps,  its code name was changed to 14  f  13. One of the methods of implementation of this programme were medical experiments. Disputes concerning those medical experiments focus on three categories: legal aspects, terminological and classification disputes, which still remain unresolved and require further research.


Ogiewa Monika

Desease and funeral ceremony of John Frederick, duke of Pomerania.

John Frederick, duke of Pomerania came from a House of Griffins. He reigned in Pomerania in the 1569-1600. At the end of his reign a problem with inheritance of the throne appeared, because the prince has not had own children and as a result his brother became his successor. In article a state of health, death reasons and funeral ceremony of John Frederick are analysed.

The historical research shows that the prince cared of one’s health. This is best proven by the fact, that John Frederick was employing well-educated doctors and he paid for theirs studies. Furthermore, the prince opened his own pharmacy in the Ducal Castle in Szczecin.

In spite of this, the prince was often ill. Perhaps genetic defects were involved in lack of duke’s children, because marriages between the House of Griffins and the House of Hohenzollern were contracted very often. Another cause could be connected with bad eating habits. The dukes of Pomerania ate a lot of white bread, fat meat and they abused alcohol. The second reason seems to be highly probable, because John Frederick has visited thermal springs, where he was treated from diseases of the digestive system.

The duke died during a trip to Wolgast. Nowadays, it is not known, what was a direct reason of his death. There is no information about appearance of corpses in funeral documents. However, it contains a description of funeral ceremony at the court of the dukes of Szczecin.

During the analysis of sources, reason of duke’s death was not discovered. An answer to the question about a cause of duke’s death will be probably possible after performing a specialist medical researches. The issue of the duke’s funeral seems to be completly different – all  information needed to describe the ceremony is provided by historical sources.


Magowska Anita

Development of obstetrics as a branch of scientific medicine in Vilnius in 1781-1842

The article focuses on the transformation of midwifery practiced by women into obstetrics practiced by doctors in Vilnius at the end of the eighteenth and the first half of nineteenth century. This study is based on some archival materials kept in Vilnius. The manuscript of lectures on obstetrics given by Prof. Mikołaj Regnier after 1781, the  textbook on midwifery by Prof. Mikołaj Mianowski published in 1818 and 1825, the book of  deliveries in the Obstetrical Clinic of the Vilnius University in1839-1842, and two inventories of the Clinic’s equipment were investigated. The changes of specialist vocabulary, modernization of learning methods, development of theory and practice of obstetrics, neonatal care, and moral and legal status of pregnant woman and unborn child were analyzed. Special attention was taken on the influence of French, Austrian and German obstetrical schools on obstetricians’ practice in Vilnius.


Grassmann Magdalena

Contribution of the Jewish medical milieu to healthcare organization in Białystok in the 19th and first half of the 20th century

In the territory of Poland, especially in its eastern provinces, healthcare was developing with a substantial involvement of Jewish medical community. The town of Bialystok, with its well organized Jewish medical service starting from the early modern period till World War II, was an excellent example. Of particular importance were the solutions introduced in the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century by the Jewish community of physicians, who organized modern well-equipped and fully-staffed hospital, created the first emergency service and care-providing organizations, implemented sanatorium treatment for children with tuberculosis. Medical care provided by the Jewish community enjoyed great trust and popularity in the town. Worth special note is the fact that this medical care was available for all Białystok inhabitants, irrespective of nationality and faith.


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