„Medycyna Nowożytna” T. 20, 2014, fasc. 2
25.09.2015 | 12.02.2022
Adam Szarszewski, Piotr Paluchowski
Epidemiological conditions and hygiene in the cities of Royal Prussia in XVI-XVIII c. The study after 1945 and research postulates
In the article, the authors show key trends in research concerning supervision over the hygiene conditions and epidemiological status from XVI to XVIII century, which are extraordinarily important and extensive research subjects. It is true, that the epidemiology and hygiene issues are present in hitherto literature of the subject, however a closer look at the studies shows that many elements have been presented too superficially, or even omitted. The research gaps are connected with individual cities, which did not live to see their own epidemiological descriptions, and also with not broad enough handling of the subject-matter, which manifests itself in usually frugal content-wise research questionnaires. The most well-researched centre of Royal Prussia in terms of hygiene and emidemiology is undoubtedly Gdańsk. Despite that, even in the case of Gdańsk, the state of the research should be regarded as unsatisfactory. The writings on two other big cities of Royal Prussia: Elbląg and Toruń, are much less extensive. Only compiling individual elements will allow for a comprehensive estimation of a real level of hygiene and epidemiological status in the cities of Royal Prussia, as well as the path of their modification by the modern society. It will allow us to verify the common, often not supported by any research, current opinions on this subject.
The compilation of military train for sanitary purposes in World War I in the territory of the German and Austro-Hungarian Empires
Military trains for sanitary purposes (Sanitätszüge, Lazarettzüge, Spitalzüge) served during World War I to the mass transport of the wounded and sick soldiers. They were supported by the railroads. Remained in use only in time of war. Preparation of sanitary trains, for example: the type of used cars and their real destiny lay down the rules state. On the territory of the German Empire – Order Sanitary (Kriegssanitätsordnung), at the Austro-Hungarian Empire area – Provisions regarding normal and sanitary trains railways in the regulation of the Imperial and Royal Army (Bestimmungen für das Normale der Eisenbahnsanitätszüge in der Vorschrift für Sanitätszüge der kaiserlichen und königlichen Armee).
The publication which describing of the Bavarian train facility, was published in 1915 in Munich, document preparation and technical evidence sanitary train military, used during World War I to transport the wounded and sick soldiers. It is a case study on the example of selected military train for sanitary purposes. The detailed analysis focuses on wagons sanitary facilities intended for common soldiers and officers, coaches adapted to provide medical assistance, maintenance train carriages and wagons for medical staff and auxiliary.
„Dental care of a child of school age in the interwar period in years 1918-1939 in Piotrków Trybunalski”
Health conditions of the Polish society after regaining the independence was very difficult. The low status of its general hygiene determined by disastrous housing and, therefore, sanitary situation, undoubtedly influenced the level and quality of life of children and adolescents. In particular, personal hygiene left a lot to be desired. A considerable part of the society of that time was plagued by numerous illnesses due to malnutrition and neglected hygiene, among them dental caries. The basic difficulty, the typical one for the whole period, was the possibility of access to the dental care. Consequently, some measures were introduced to find optimal solutions aimed at improvement of the level of hygiene in schools and organization of dental care. These efforts were mainly focused on the creation of the legal basis for the performance of dental practice and taking actions to implement the assumption that every school in a big city will have its own dental office.
However, the beginnings of the implementation of the concept of dental aid for children were actually difficult. For modest financial possibilities of the educational authorities and local governments, as well as the small number of dentists, only some schools met such a requirement.
On the other hand, there were such towns as Radom and Piotrków Trybunalski which succeeded in the introduction of the compulsory dental care in schools in the thirties through the establishment of number of outpatient dental clinics.
Eventually, in respect of the most of the cities, the instructions and guidelines for school dental care were only slightly managed to perform until the outbreak of World War II.
Activity of Trade Union of Pharmacists Employees of the Polish Republic in the structure of Slavic Pharmacists Federation (1929 – 1939)
This article focuses on attempts to answer the question – what nature the activity of Trade Union of Pharmacists Employees of the Polish Republic (referred to as Union) had in the structure of Slavic Pharmacists Federation (referred to as Federation) in the period between 1929 and 1939? The Union was established in 1919 as the largest Polish organization bringing together qualified pharmaceutical staff. Its aim was to protect the rights of employees, improving their working conditions and to develop their professional qualifications. The Federation was set up in 1929, merging most of the pharmaceutical organizations from Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia and Bulgaria. The purpose of the Federation was to coalesce the pharmaceutical environments of the member states by scientific and personal connections, equalization of professional standards and development of qualifications. The activity of the Federation was however limited to organizing biennial international congresses. Polish scientists played a leading role in the structures of the Federation. A huge contribution was also made by the members of the Union. It was not only the direct involvement – based on active participation of the Union’s members in functioning of the Federation – but also informative, realized by publishing articles concerning the Federation in “Pharmaceutical Chronicle” – Union’s press organ. A common feature for both aspects of Union’s members’ participation in the structures of the Federation was a huge enthusiasm about connection, or even unification of Slavic nations. However, this enthusiasm did not cover Polish national interests. The existence of the Union and the Federation ended with the beginning of the Second World War.
Izabela Krasińska, Renata Bednarz Grzybek, Piotr Sławiński
The Abstinent League of Railway Workers within the period: 1929-1939
The Abstinent League of Railway Workers was formed as a consequence of joining two railway associations of teetotallers in Poland of 1929. From the outset the League was part of the International Union of Railway Workers-Alcohol Antagonists, which came into existence in 1907. The members of the Abstinent League of Railway Workers were the employees of Polish State Railways together with their families. In the year 1939 the Association consisted of 3390 persons being active in 57 circles.
The aim of the article is to represent the activities of the Abstinent League of Railway Workers promoting health, in particular alcohol-free lifestyle. Those activities appeared as sightseeing tours organised at home and abroad, antialcoholic lectures and talks, antialcoholic exhibitions as well as they took the form of advising on how to cope with alcoholism and of the treatment of the addicts themselves. Furthermore, the own press organ of the League was being edited. The Abstinent League of Railway Workers organised dances, Christmas-Eve suppers for the members’ children, carnival kinder-balls, abstinent Christmastime meetings, musical concerts, amateurish theatrical performances as well as commemorative meetings. The Association built the Holiday Resort for the Community’s Circle of the League in Susiec and the Railway Workers-Teetotallers’ Centre in Lvov.
It was quite an achievement to install the Railway Car-Exhibition when promoting healthy lifestyle. In the year 1931 the Car was arranged to serve as a touring exhibition promoting antialcoholic and antituberculitic prophylaxis. It was then the only achievement of its kind in Europe.
The Delegates of the Abstinent League of Railway Workers took active part in Congresses and Assemblies of the Delegates belonging to the International Union of Railway Workers-Alcohol Antagonists. Those assemblies used to be held in one of the countries being part of the Union (London, Warsaw, Belgrade, Vienna, Stockholm, Helsinki).
On shaping a “new type of doctor” at the turn of 1940s and 1950s
The article is an attempt to answer the question, if a new type of doctor – a person with new morality – was successfully shaped at the turn of 1940s and 1950s. The Author discusses historical circumstances which play significant role in this context. And in the case of university students, the first symptom of the new social policy was the change of social profile of students.
The article gives a brief description of student recruitment process, scholarship privileges, organization of the initial year of studies, preparatory courses – all meant to open the access to university for young people from peasant and worker families (the Author refers to her other article where she discussed that issue more extensively). Next, the Author presents other factors playing important role in desired shaping of the new generation of doctors. These were, among others, influencing medical students by political organizations with their ideology, controlled selection of teaching staff, changes in the curricula, as well as e.g. participation in the harvesting campaigns or collectivisation of students. Also the university press contributed to the change of traditional image of a young doctor. The acid test of the above actions taken by the then state authorities were so-called “work assignments”.
The article does not offer a clear answer to the question if the transformation of the model of a traditional doctor to a doctor with “new socialist morality” in the new political reality of the post-war period was successful. See why.