“Medycyna Nowożytna” T. 26, 2020, fasc. 1

16.02.2022 | 17.04.2022

M. Turos, Chest and heart wounds in the works of Dominique Jean Larrey

This text raises the problem of the beginning of procedures performed in the early nineteenth century on the pericardial sac, and especially punctures in the event of fluid buildup. Thus, he presents the contribution of Dominique Jean Larrey to the foundations for later cardiac surgery.


J.Lusek, Between school hygiene and medical practice. Duties of a school doctor in Prussia (1st half of the 20th century)

The first non-formalized samples of medical care for children at the primary schools, young people educating in vocational schools, young people at the secondary general-education schools and for people at the preparatory institutes as well as in the teacher education were already taken in the 80s of the 19th century.

The duties of the district doctors, not yet school doctors, were limited to checking compliance regulations in the area of the general condition of school buildings and hygienic conditions in the abovementioned areas and buildings. Only in isolated cases did the doctors, mostly out of their own free will, attempt to carry out the regular medical examinations with the aim of recording physical and mental defects as well as the general health situation of children and adolescents of both sexes.

Despite the consciousness of the medical world, the scope of duties and obligations of school doctors was only defined and confirmed by state regulations in the first two decades of the 20th century. The school doctors became representatives of the public health care in educational institutions confirmed by government regulations. They were not only concerned with the observance of hygiene regulations, but above all with the prophylaxis of childhood diseases, infectious, venereal or occupational diseases (including vocational counseling), with the diagnosis of physical and mental dysfunctions and with the elimination of the pathologies associated with alcoholism. They carried out their tasks in close cooperation with the Youth Welfare Office.


B.Urbanek, Charity activities in Vilnius in the times of rebirth of the Polish self-government (1919-1927).

The article explores one of the difficult topics from the turbulent time of the birth of the II Polish Republic – migrations of refugees who were running away from various conflicts that engulfed the region in the beginning of 1920s. The author sets out to assess the sanitary and social conditions in the city until the year 1927, based on documentation from the Lithuanian State Modern Archive (Lietvas centrinis valstybes archywas).


M. Pietsch I.Spielvogel, Rabbi dr Max Dienemann as a hygienist

Max Dienemann (1875–1939) is known primarily as a leading German liberal rabbi, acting inter alia for sixteen years in Racibórz in Upper Silesia. He is considered one of the intellectual fathers of Reform Judaism, which in 1935 ordained the first female rabbi in the history of Judaism – Regina Jonas (1902–1944). A publicist, philologist, and historian, he left behind significant intellectual achievements associated primarily with the analysis of Judaism as well as Jewish history and culture. Little is known that his activities are devoted to the connections between Judaism and hygiene, including writings on hygiene by Jewish doctors. Dienemann developed this subject, finding a starting point for his analyzes in the Talmud and its guidelines for health and purity as an ethical and religious obligation (Sabbath 50b et al.). In this paper, we present a poorly understood area of ​​interest of Rabbi Dienemann, focused on issues of hygiene and religion, hygiene history and hygiene-related ethnomedicine among Jews in Europe.


M.Ciesielska, Amelia Greenwald and the Nursing School at the Old Jewish Hospital at Czyste in Warsaw

 The American nurse Amelia Greenwald was the creator and first director of the Jewish School of Nursing at the Old Jewish Hospital in Warsaw. During World War I she served in the American Expeditionary Corps fighting in Europe and was a member of the American Red Cross. In 1923, Greenwald received a proposal to create and run one of the most modern educational institutions training nurses in Warsaw, Poland. The school was founded thanks to the efforts of the American-Jewish Medical Affairs Committee of the Joint Distribution Committee, also known as Joint and the Society for Supporting the School of Nurses at the Old Jewish Hospital in Warsaw. The history of the school created by Greenwald has already been described by Zofia Podgórska-Klawe and Iwona Kowalkowska. The first of them outlined the functioning of the institution based on the prospectus of the School of Nursing developed in 1928 by the then director Sabina Schindlerówna. The second author also reviewed the medical press and described the wartime period of the school and the fate of its graduates. This article focuses on the character of the first headmistress of the School and her work on establishing the institution. As the main source base, documents collected in the Archives of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC Archives) were used and made available on the website https://archives.jdc.org. The author has translated some documents from English to Polish to present the history of the Nursing School at the Old Jewish Hospital in Warsaw.


B. Kuliński, Organization of health care for the employees of the KC PZPR and CRZZ (1955–1980)

The publication presents the history and organization of institutions responsible for health care of the employees of the Central Committee of PZPR and CRZZ – Poliklinika Pracowników Komitetu Centralnego Polskiej Zjednoczonej Partii Robotniczej (KC PZPR) i Centralnej Rady Związków Zawodowych (CRZZ) and her successor Przychodnia Pracownicza KC PZPR i CRZZ. The main part of the work presents the history of the institutions, their organization and scope of activity. The bibliographical note presents such issues as: circumstances in which documents were found, management of documentation in the institutions and the condition of documents. The study based on previously unknown and unexplored archival material.

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