Dissertations for the History of Education, vol. 47 (2010)

15.03.2015 | 11.12.2021

Jarosław Jastrzębski, The Concept of Academic Teacher in the Legislation of the Second Polish Republic and Its Consequences for Historical Research

Summary:  The aim of the following article is to present the idea of academic teacher during the period of Second Polish Republic and its consequences for the historical research. Significant differences in understanding the definition of academic teacher during interwar period (1918-1939) and modern times have been pointed out. The paper relies mostly on analysis of national law acts. It has been divided into five chapters. In the beginning it presents the modern definition of academic teacher according to contemporary law. Next point discussed, is the law during Second Polish Republic, which constituted activities of universities, and general system of academic studies at that time. The relevant definitions have been precised – those referring to scholars, and those referring to scientific powers (both rudimentary and auxiliary). By definition, the academic teacher during interwar period included only those holding the function of professor (ordinary, extraordinary and honored) or postdoctoral lecturing qualification, and it excluded both attendants and assistants. Also, the paper focuses on the changes that took place between 1920-1939, especially regarding the professors by academic title, contracted and vice professors. Different understandings of the role of academic teacher during Second Polish Republic and Third Polish Republic (current status) lead to conclusions, which have been gathered in the last part. Those should be helpful to historians researching the polish education on the academic level.


Ewa Kula, The Main Pedagogical Institute in Sankt Peterburg (1828-1859) and Its Role in Education of Teachers for Schools in the Kingdom of Poland

Summary: History of teacher education for secondary schools in Russia dates from the second half of XVIIIth century, when in 1786, in range of reforms of Catherine II, the Teacher’s Seminar (Teacher’s Training School) was established. The Seminar had been eliminated from established in 1783 and directed by Teodor Iankovich de Mirievo (Jankovič Mirijevski) the Main Public School of Petersburg. In 1803 the Seminar was renamed into Teachers Grammar School, and on the act of 1804 transformed into Pedagogical Institute, running 1804-1816. On 23rd December 1816 the Pedagogical Institute was renemad into Main Pedagogical Institute, and then in 1819 included in the structure of new established Sankt Petersburg University.

The article presents the problems of organization and activity of the Institute from its reactivating in 1828 till closing in 1859. According to regulations of the act of 30th  September 1828, the Institute had three faculties: Philosophy and Law, Mathematics and Physics, History and Philology. Graduates of full course obtained younger teacher of grammar school degree and they (like university graduates) could compete to master or doctor’s degree at the university. In 1851, as a result of Ministry of Public Enlightenment act, the Institute was divided into lower and upper courses, and they next split into two faculties : History and Philology, and Mathematics and Physics. Within the History and Philology faculty there was established a department for training teachers of Russian literatury and history in schools of Warsaw District. Polish language was an obligatory subject there. Between 1828-1847 the Institute was directed by Fiodor Ivanovich Middendorf, then (1847-1859) by Ivan Ivanovich Davydov.

Till 1859 graduates of the Institute consisted of 42 university professors, 377 secondary school teachers and 261 teachers of  lower secondary schools. 28 graduates of the Institute were employed in man’s state secondary schools in the Kingdom of Poland. Their role was to teach Russian language and culture and educate pupils as loyal tsar’s serfs.


Michał Piekarski, The Activity of the Polish and Ukrainian Disciples of the Lvov Musicological School (to 1939)

Summary: The Musicology Department at University of Jan Casimir in Lviv played a very important role in Polish and Ukrainian science. The Department was established by Adolf Chybinski – outstanding Polish scientist, who directed the Department throughout its existence (1912-1939). In the Department of Musicology studied Poles, Jews and Ukrainians. There were often conducted pioneering research on music, both Polish, European and, to a lesser extent, Ukrainian. Graduates and students of Lviv musicology wrote numerous publications in various Polish and Ukrainian magazines and newspapers. A large number of new music magazines in interwar Poland were established through their activity. The educational and artistic activities of the graduates and students contributed to development in interwar Poland, both Polish and Ukrainian culture and science.


Władysława Szulakiewicz, Following the Master. Tadeusz Czeżowski’s (1889-1981) Service for University and Science

Summary: The articles is dedicated to the academic and organizational activity of Tadeusz Czeżowski. He was a philosopher, a logician, a ethics  and a scientist, and one of the most outstanding student of Kazimierz Twardowski, who was the founder of the Lvov-Warsaw school of philosophy. In this work the special attention was put to his organizational activity for the sake of university life and his vision of a university teacher. His vision concerning the second aspect appeals to his views and realization of some pedeutologic ideas. The extremely important element about the reflection upon Tadeusz Czeżowski’s academic activity is taking into consideration his relations with Twardowski.   In his biography there can be distinguished three periods: Lvov, Warsaw-Vilnius and Toruń. In each of the aforementioned periods he took actions for the sake of organizational life of university in Poland and developed the concept of university teacher pointing to the ethical determinants of this occupation.

The articles is based on the monographs, diaries, and archive sources. From the analysis of the sources it appears that Tadeusz Czeżowski was highly respected by his master and on the other hand, how huge authority Twardowski was for him. Moreover, the diaries present that Tadeusz Czeżowski continued work of his master. It can be said that Tadeusz Czeżowski belonged to the scientists who lived the life according to the values which can be found in his works as well.


Jan Szumski, Vladimir Piczeta and Żanna Kormanowa. An Example of the Polish-Soviet Scholarly Relations

Summary: The given work attempts to present an example of mutual relations of two historians Polish Żanna Kormanowa and Russian Vladimir Picheta. The article focuses on some aspects of the process of formation of the Soviet sample of a Marxist historical science in Poland. It could be mentioned that abundantly insufficient volume of the academic research conducted on the basis of deep scientific and archival researches in the field of history of the Polish-Soviet relations, in particular in the sphere of history. Abstracting from the formulas of the Soviet historiography on the one hand and the emotional estimations which have appeared on the  wave of democratic pluralism, constructed on legends and myths, on another hand, the author tries to present the main stages in life and creativity of the mentioned  historians on the basis of the brief biographic analysis. One of the tasks of this work is to show interrelation and influence of concrete historical conditions on formation by the new Marxist concept of history of Poland. At the same time the author undertakes his attempt to leave from traditional estimations of Sovietization processes in the Polish historical science where Żanna Kormanowa had been playing a main role, and to reveal Vladimir Picheta’s contribution in theoretical judgment and construction of new interpretative schemes of the history of Poland. Both persons are presented in universal estimation, with their personal weaknesses and strengths. Especially important in this research is the indication of Vladimir Picheta’s  role, who was the scholar in the field of Slavic Studies and widely  known for his works on historical past s of Belarus and the Slavic people. His name rightfully belongs to the leading Slavistics experts in the USSR in that period who dealt with education of new generation of historians in post-war Poland, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia. Hence mainly Picheta had played a decisive role in the formation of historical consciousness of Żanna Kormanowa.

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